2000 The United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF) is a forum on forest policy set up within the framework of ECOSOC which, together with the Cooperation Partnership for Forests (International Forest Organizations), includes the so-called International Forest Agreement. International agreements on the use of tropical hardwoods There are also international agreements on the use of tropical hardwoods and logging. The International Tropical Woods Agreement was established in 2006 to “promote the expansion and diversification of international trade in tropical timber from sustainably managed and legally harvested forests and promote the sustainable management of tropical timber-producing forests.” 71 countries have signed the UN-sponsored agreement. Until the question of how to manage the drivers of deforestation is resolved, REDD is unlikely to move quickly from paper to implementation on a larger scale. The recording of REDD was not a small feat. The Kyoto Protocol, adopted in 1997, excluded forest conservation in developing countries, where most emissions are due to deforestation, for the sake of efficiency. Although REDD was brought back to the negotiating table in 2005, the international community still needed 10 years of painstaking work to address the details that previously prevented its adoption. RedD is now permanently anchored in Article 5 of the agreement and finally provides the political signal needed to mobilize urgently needed action around forests. One of the main effects of approval is that governments use their money where they have their mouths.
Upstream of Paris, REDD programmes had already attracted an estimated $10 billion in international investment, mainly from government sources. At the beginning of COP21, the governments of Norway, Germany and the United Kingdom jointly released an additional $5 billion for REDD over the next five years. These investments provide a solid monetary basis for boosting the ambitious forest climate targets set out by countries in their national climate change plans (INDCs) before Paris. Many hope that the length of the Paris Agreement will attract new long-term investment from other industrialized countries and private sector players through zero-forest policies and carbon markets. More than a decade after REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) entered the UN climate negotiations, the current situation and future direction are controversial. This paper analyses 162 INCS (Intended National Determined Contributions) or climate change plans to assess whether and how countries plan to use REDD – in the implementation of the Paris Agreement.